Award Date

August 2017

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences

First Committee Member

Kara Radzak

Second Committee Member

Richard Tandy

Third Committee Member

James Navalta

Fourth Committee Member

Catherine Turner

Number of Pages



Context: Soccer is a high-intensity sport resulting in injuries. Strength ratios have been used to identify areas of weakness and help prevent further injuries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in hip adduction: abduction ratios in collegiate male and female soccer players. The hypothesis was that males will have a lower ratio than females. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: Research Center. Participants: Five male and nine female NCAA Division 1 soccer players were recruited for this study. Intervention: Independent variable is gender. Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer was used for data collection. The subjects performed three practice repetitions at 60o/s to become familiar with the speed and movement required for data collection. Following the practice repetitions, the subject performed one set of five repetitions at 60o/s. The dominant side was collected first followed by the non-dominant side. Main Outcome Measures: The dependent variable is hip adduction: abduction ratio. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics were taken for age, height, and body mass. Independent t-test was used to determine if there was a significant difference in hip adduction and hip abduction peak torques and hip adduction: abduction ratios between male and female soccer players. Data was normalized and independent t-tests was used to determine if a significant difference was found in hip peak torques. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine if there was a significant correlation between body mass and hip adduction and abduction strength. Results: Males produced a significantly greater hip abduction peak torques in dominant (105.06 ± 17.94 ft-lb) and non-dominant (102.16 ± 18. 68 ft-lb) limbs than females (dominant, 69.2 ± 10.40 ft-lb; non-dominant, 72.57 ± 14.30 ft-lb) for both dominant (p<0.001) and non-dominant (p=0.01) limbs. Absolute hip adduction torque was not significantly different between males (dominant: 45.74 ± 17.62 ft-lb, non-dominant: 43.54 ± 17.75 ft-lb) and females (dominant: 26.99 ± 6.71 ft-lb, non-dominant: 35.58 ± 11.81 ft-lb) (dominant, p=0.08; non-dominant, p=0.33). There was no significant difference in hip adduction: abduction ratio between male and female soccer players in dominant (female: 38.88% ± 6.63%, male: 46.87% ± 25.37%, p=0.52) and non-dominant (female: 48.46% ± 10.75%, male: 43.85% ± 21.14%, p=0.59). A positive correlation was seen in absolute hip abduction strength and body mass in the population as a whole (abduction dominant: r=0.769, p<0.001; abduction non-dominant: r=0.713, p=0.004). When scaled to body mass, there was no significant difference in hip adduction for dominant (female: 0.46 ± 0.13 Nm/kg, male: 0.58 ± 0.25 Nm/kg, p=0.37) and non-dominant (female: 0.60 ± 0.22 Nm/kg, male: 0.54 ± 0.24 Nm/kg, p=0.66) and in abduction for dominant (female: 1.16 ± 0.23 Nm/kg, male: 1.30 ± 0.16 Nm/kg, p=0.28) and nondominant (female: 1.22 ± 0.27 Nm/kg, male: 1.26 ± 0.17 Nm/kg, p=0.77) between genders. There was not a significant correlation between body mass and hip strength scaled to body mass (abduction dominant: r=0.115, p=0.70, abduction non-dominant: r=-0.014, p=0.96; adduction dominant: r=-0.011, p=0.97, non-dominant r=-0.357, p=0.21). Conclusion: Gender does not play a role in hip adduction: abduction ratio. Word Count: 524


Abduction; Adduction; Collegiate; Female; Male; Soccer





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