Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Committee Member

Gary Totten

Second Committee Member

Vincent Perez

Third Committee Member

Stephen Brown

Fourth Committee Member

Mark Padoongpatt

Number of Pages



Many studies on Filipino American literature focus on the first-generation’s struggle with assimilation; however, American-socialized generation 1.5 and second-generation Filipino Americans also face immense pressure. How do generation 1.5 and second-generation Filipino Americans develop their identities in compliance with and resistance to stereotypes created by the dominant American and Filipino communities? To answer this question, I use a postcolonial and Asian American Studies theoretical framework to do close readings of three novels written by American-socialized Filipino Americans from the 2000s-2010s and set in the 1990s. These novels are American Son (2001) by Brian Ascalon Roley for racial stereotypes, One Tribe (2006) by Evelina Galang for gender stereotypes, and America Is Not the Heart (2018) by Elaine Castillo for sexuality stereotypes, with the latter two focusing mainly on Filipina Americans. While all the novels feature strategies that both adhere to and combat dominant stereotypes, the resistance strategies are generally more effective, emphasizing the limitations of these stereotypes rather than condemning the adherence strategy. The ultimate solution to these issues is the creation of a community that brings together different generations, racial mixes, genders, and sexualities to expand Filipino American identity. While Roley’s, Galang’s, and Castillo’s novels are currently understudied, they epitomize the 1990s-2010s and give a likely indication of where Filipino American literature is headed. As the population of American-socialized Filipino Americans continues to grow, their voices must be highlighted in literature to understand how they can navigate the dominant American and Filipino communities to form their own hybridized identities.


Asian American; Gender; Race; Second-generation; Sexuality; Stereotypes


American Studies | Arts and Humanities | Asian American Studies | Chinese Studies | East Asian Languages and Societies | Other Languages, Societies, and Cultures | South and Southeast Asian Languages and Societies

File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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