Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Committee Member

Debra Martin

Second Committee Member

Liam Frink

Third Committee Member

Barbara Roth

Fourth Committee Member

Janet Dufek

Number of Pages



Previous researchers have established the Point of Pines region as a zone of interaction between multiple cultural groups. Ancient Mogollon, Kayenta, and Hohokam maintained relationships in this area for an extensive period of time. They converged upon the region to exchange goods, share ideas, and to live. Exactly how long this interaction occurred before the Pueblo at Point of Pines is not known. Haury (1985) and Lindsay (1987) suggested that post-migratory co-residence of at least two of these groups at Point of Pines Pueblo resulted in violence. The primary objectives of this research were to conduct a biooarchaeological analysis of the osteological collection from Point of Pines in order to answer questions regarding health, violence, and identity in the face of migration.

This study collected data on the osteological remains of 444 individuals from 5 different archaeological sites – Point of Pines Pueblo and two other sites, a multi-ethnic pueblo known as Kinishba, and a Kayenta site at Black Mesa. Collected data included information regarding health, trauma, and activity as observed on skeletalized remains to answer the following research questions:

1. Do the data on biological affinity support heterogeneity and more than one biologically, closely related group at Point of Pines Pueblo?

2. What role did interpersonal violence play in the aftermath of migration?

3. Is there evidence of differential health and treatment by age, sex, mortuary

context and/or local/non-local status?

4. How do health and trauma at Point of Pines compare to other Mogollon sites

with migrant populations, such as Kinishba? How do they compare to other

Kayenta-only sites, like Black Mesa?

Overall, the results indicate that multiple cultural groups resided at Point of Pines

Pueblo. Previous conclusions stating the presence of only one or two groups did not fully consider the fluidity of identity in a post-migration community. There are few indications of violence or trauma during the occupation at Point of Pines. This violence does not appear to be directed towards any one particular group based upon age, sex, geographic origin, or mortuary context. The only potential influence on violence was occupation. When compared to other sites, there were fewer severe pathological conditions. Those that were found could be associated with increased populations and a greater reliance upon agricultural foods.


Bioarchaeology; Identity; Migration


Archaeological Anthropology | Biological and Physical Anthropology

File Format


File Size

10.9 MB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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