Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences

First Committee Member

James Navalta

Second Committee Member

Arpita Basu

Third Committee Member

Dharini Bhammar

Fourth Committee Member

Jenifer Utz

Number of Pages



Anaerobic exercise causes metabolic acidosis to occur in the muscle, which is unfavorable for sustaining high intensity activity, as fatigue starts to set in. In order to compensate for the onset of fatigue produced by an acidic environment, respiratory alkalosis, induced by hyperventilation, can be performed to mitigate these effects. In contrast, research has shown that slowing down the breath rate, such as a two second inhale and three second exhale, has led to an increase in performance outcomes. Purpose: To investigate power output and the physiological responses after implementation of different breathing techniques during the recovery periods of intermittent high intensity cycling. Methods: Ten recreationally active participants (four females and six males) performed 10 sets of 10 second standing sprints on a WattBike with 60 seconds of recovery between sets. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, participants implemented a breathing condition (hyperventilation, downregulation, and unregulated breathing) during the recovery periods of the exercise protocol. Hyperventilation was performed in the last 30 seconds of each recovery period at a breathing rate of 60 breaths per minute (bpm) to decrease the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2). Downregulation was performed immediately following the sprint set and began with 8 quick breaths at a rate of 60 bpm followed by slowing down the breath rate to a two second inhale and four second exhale for the remainder of the recovery period. Mean and peak power outputs were examined for each sprint set to compare how the breathing conditions affected training performance over time. Results: No significant difference in mean and peak power outputs were found between conditions (mean power: p = .485, peak power: p =.148) and no significant condition x time interaction was found for mean (p = .553) and peak power outputs (p =.341). Conclusion: Neither hyperventilation nor downregulation attenuated the decrease in power output across sprint sets, indicating that implementing these breathing conditions may not be useful for improving training performance. However, it is possible that these breathing techniques need to be practiced and perfected over time to elicit performance enhancements.


Anaerobic; Carbon dioxide; Hyperventilation; Power output; Respiratory rate; Sprint


Biochemistry | Kinesiology | Medical Physiology | Physiology

File Format


File Size

0.718 MB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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