Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences

First Committee Member

James Navalta

Second Committee Member

Jing Nong Liang

Third Committee Member

Arpita Basu

Fourth Committee Member

Benjamin Burroughs

Number of Pages



Purpose: The purpose of this dissertation is three-fold: 1. Investigate the effects of acute beta alanine ingestion during green exercise on connectedness to nature, and perception of pain. 2. Investigate the test-retest reliability of the Love and care of Nature Scale during the task of mountain biking. 3. Investigate the effects of green exercise on connectedness to nature and perception. Methods: Three individual studies were conducted: The first was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study design which examined the effect of induced painful sensation (via acute Beta Alanine (B-ALA) ingestion) on Love and Care of Nature (LCN), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) during outdoor exercise. Twenty participants were recruited to participate. Participants in the respective studies either completed two .8km hikes after consuming 6.4 grams of beta alanine or placebo. The second and third study had 20 participants complete two bouts of Mountain biking (MB).

Fot the second study, participants completed The Love and Care of Nature (LCN) scale, Brunel Mood Scale Vigor (BRUMS) subscale, Felt Arousal scale (FAS), and Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale before and after each 1.6km-trial. These scales have all previously demonstrated validity and reliability, but not in a mountain biking green exercise (MBGE) task. Reliability of these perceptual scales was ascertained during the second study. To be considered reliable, three criteria must be met: ICC values must exceed 0.70, the lower bound (LB) of the 95% CI must exceed 0.70, and CV must not exceed 10%. The third study evaluated the effects of MBGE on connectedness to nature and perception. A 2 (Time: Pre, Post) x 2 (trial: 1, 2) repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for all four dependent variables (LCN, BRUMS Vigor, FAS, and RPE). These repeated measures ANOVAs, where necessary, were followed by post hoc paired-samples t-tests with Bonferroni corrections. Results: Study 1: Total MPQ scores increased with consumption of B-ALA (p = 0.001). An increased LCN score was observed following exercise regardless of condition (p = .035). Study 2: The LCN scale was the only scale to meet all three criteria post-MBGE (ICC = 0.939, 95%CI: LB = 0.849, UB (Upper Bound) = 0.976, CV = 2.25%). Study 3: RPE, FAS, and LCN increased post-trial compared to pre-trial, while not differing from the first to second trial. Vigor increased from pre to post trial, as well as increased from trial 1 to trial 2. Conclusions: The findings of the first and third study demonstrated that connectedness to nature, indicated by increased total LCN scores, increased from pre to post workout during both hiking and mountain biking. This was also demonstrated in two different biomes, the mountain forest, and desert foothills. The findings of the second study demonstrated that the LCN is reliable for use during GE. Also, the BRUMS Vigor, FAS, and RPE scales were not reliable during GE.


Exercise Perception; Forest bathing; Green Exercise; Hiking; Mountain Biking; Shinrin Yoku



File Format


File Size

956 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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Kinesiology Commons