Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Teaching and Learning

First Committee Member

Kenneth Varner

Second Committee Member

Steven Bickmore

Third Committee Member

Peter Wiens

Fourth Committee Member

Miguel Gonzales

Number of Pages



There exists a plethora of quantitative studies which show the effectiveness of quality formative assessment and feedback in the classroom setting (Butler, 1987; Nyquist, 2003; Irons, 2008; Baskula, 2010; Pradana et al., 2017; Hossain, 2018; Pinger et al., 2018). Wiliam (2018) suggests the perceptions of the recipients of the feedback must be considered to determine the most effective levels of feedback. Seidman (2019) explained many researchers in the United States study education, but very few focus on the perspectives of the students and teachers, whose experiences comprise schooling. This qualitative study focuses on the perceptions of Grade 8 Pre-Algebra students from a large comprehensive school district with respect to formative feedback in mathematics gained through semistructrured interviews. The study resulted in three stand-alone journal articles that served as the basis for a doctoral dissertation, each representing a specific aspect of the study including a systematic literature review, engagement in the empirical study, and a reflection on the methodological challenges faced during the research study, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data from the study show mathematics teachers at all levels are often returning formative assessments to their students without comments as feedback, only a grade. The most effective form of formative feedback, comments without a grade, was non-existent in the educational history of the participants. Additional qualitative research with greater generalizability, correlated with pre-existing quantitative research, could be further explored. Building upon the findings of this study and current research to compare the perceptions of students to their teachers with respect to the usage of effective formative feedback strategies in mathematics would also enhance the current research in the field.


Assessment; Formative Assessment; Middle School; Pre-Algebra


Science and Mathematics Education

File Format


File Size

3900 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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