Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


William F. Harrah College of Hospitality

First Committee Member

Tony Henthorne

Second Committee Member

Seyhmus Baloglu

Third Committee Member

Jungsun Kim

Fourth Committee Member

Anjala Krishen

Number of Pages



At times messaging may be of an instructive nature that can be perceived as an attempt to threaten or limit an individual’s freedom. This freedom limitation can range from individual choice to physical requirements. How a message is framed, or positioned, is very important. In certain instances, even when the message has the best intentions, if framed incorrectly can have the opposite, or boomerang, effect on people. This state is known as psychological reactance. When invoked, consumers will act in a way that eliminates the threat of freedom to restore balance. Such a state can also lead to negative implications on attitude and behavioral intention towards the message. Customer relationship management is a means to create an emotional commitment with consumers. Establishing this relationship, along with the core components of loyalty and trust, can have a positive effect on attitude and behavioral intention. Thus, it is important for firms to develop effective consumer relationship practices to counter any potential perceived messaging constraints that may lead to reactance, thus helping offset any adverse attitude or behavioral intention implications.


Attitude; Behavioral Intention; Customer Relationship Management; Emotional Commitment; Loyalty; Psychological Reactance


Business Administration, Management, and Operations | Marketing | Psychology

File Format


File Size

1022 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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