Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


Epidemiology and Biostatistics

First Committee Member

Qing Wu

Second Committee Member

Chad Cross

Third Committee Member

Jennifer Pharr

Fourth Committee Member

Lung-Wen Chen

Fifth Committee Member

Mingon Kang

Number of Pages



Studies on the association between inflammatory cytokine IL-1 polymorphisms and osteoporotic fracture risk have yielded inconsistent results. No related meta-analysis or systematic review has been reported in the literature. Hence, the first meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effect of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1 polymorphisms on osteoporotic fracture risk. Two researchers searched for eligible studies online via Medline, Web of Science, and Embase between January 1, 1980, and April 1, 2022. A manual search of relevant references and review articles was performed. Furthermore, two researchers conducted study selection, appraisal, and data abstraction independently using the predefined data collection form. Any disagreements were resolved in these processes by consensus. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis model. The effect size of each study was weighted by the reciprocal of its variance. Cochrane's Q test and Higgin’s I2 were employed to assess the heterogeneity. We appraised study quality by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 785 relevant references were identified in the literature search; however, only ten studies met the inclusion criteria of the systematic review, and eight studies that reported fracture outcomes were included in the meta-analysis. Among eligible studies, three reported IL−1β (−511) polymorphisms, and seven reported IL−1RN (VNTR). It was found that there was no association between genotype IL−1β (−511 C/T) and osteoporotic fracture (OR=0.84, 95% CI= [0.47, 1.52], Heterogeneity: I2 =91%, χ2=22.65, p

Controlled Subject

Meta-analysis; Health risk assessment


Biostatistics | Genetics | Public Health

File Format


File Size

3500 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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