Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Civil and Environmental Engineering and Construction

First Committee Member

Moses Karakouzian

Second Committee Member

Jin O. Choi

Third Committee Member

Pramen P. Shrestha

Fourth Committee Member

Vernon Hodge

Fifth Committee Member

Alexander Barzilov


Concrete, next to water, is the most used material (Gagg, 2014), which consumes natural or manufactured aggregates and resource-intensive cement. Concrete is also a more wasteful construction material than timber and steel. Depleting the natural resource due to aggregate extraction and the environmental unfriendliness of cement production have left the construction industry with no choice. Reducing waste, reusing, or recycling can help conserve natural resources. In this regard, the construction industry constantly seeks full or partial replacement of concrete aggregates and cement with recycled material. Glass is a candidate for replacing the three major components: cement, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregates in concrete. Partial replacement of these major concrete components with crushed and ground waste glass may be an effective way to reduce carbon footprint, offset the material cost, and enhance durability. This research aimed to partially replace the three major concrete components with crushed and ground waste glass material. This study explored the characteristics of crushed waste glass pozzolan and aggregate to compare with mineral pozzolan and aggregates. These characterized glass materials then partially replaced the three major concrete components in varying mix combinations to study the effect on concrete's fresh, hardened, and durability properties. The major variables in this research were grain size and replacement proportions of crushed and ground waste glass in concrete. Aggregate gradation (that of NRM aggregates), water/cementitious ratio, ambient temperature (between 76 -78), and slump (3-5 inches) were kept constant. Contrasting with previous research studies that aimed to evaluate the effect of crushed and ground waste glass on concrete as a single or double component replacement, this research studied the effect of partial replacement of the three components in a single mix in a total of 14 combination trial runs. It is found that particle size and replacement proportion of crushed and ground waste glass affect hardened concrete properties negatively. The specific unit weight of the crushed and ground waste aggregate decreased the unit weight of the fresh concrete. It was also found that the effect of particle size and replacement proportion on durability was favorable. This research showed that crushed and ground waste glass is viable in partially replacing all three major concrete components to satisfy the fresh-concrete, hardened-concrete, and durability properties of concrete with an optimum 10%, 15%, and 20% partial replacement of cement, fine, and coarse aggregate with crushed and ground waste glass material. Concrete with crushed and ground waste glass showed better durability and met hardened concrete properties at later ages. Crushed and ground waste glass is not only viable in its effect on concrete properties but also is an environmentally sustainable alternative as it reduces cement production, aggregate dredging, and not to mention reducing waste glass ending in landfill. This research will pave the road to study the three-component replacement of the major concrete components in more control mixes and field application of the proposed optimum mix proportion. It will also open the door to studying the feasibility and economic viability of waste glass recycling.


concrete material replacement; glass aggregate; glass pozzolan; Glasscrete; Recycled waste glass; Sustainability


Civil Engineering

File Format


File Size

4600 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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