Award Date

May 2023

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences

First Committee Member

John Mercer

Second Committee Member

Tedd Girouard

Third Committee Member

James Navalta

Fourth Committee Member

Daniel Young

Number of Pages



The purpose of this study is to investigate physiological responses during a traditional active warm-up and a passive warm-up consisting of wearing heated trousers during a submaximal endurance cycling workout. Participants included 10 cyclists/triathletes (3 females, 7 males; age: 48 ± 13 years old; mass: 157.9 ± 33.8 kg; height: 169.3 ± 8.65 cm; percent body fat: 25.3 ± 8.53 %) of at least 18 years of age who could continuously cycle for at least 120 minutes and had knowledge of their individual FTP. Experimental 1-day testing included a randomized crossover design where participants proceeded with two different protocols: an active warm-up cycling 15 minutes and a passive warm-up wearing heated trousers for 15 minutes. Following each protocol, participants were then asked to cycle at a submaximal level of 70% FTP. Dependent variables that were taken during submaximal exercise included core temperature, skin temperature, VO2, CO2, RER, heart rate, and cycling economy. Dependent paired t-tests were run on SPSS 28th edition (IBM SPSS Statistics Data Editor, SPSS Version 28.01.00) for data reduction and analysis with significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Data analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in core temperature (P > 0.05), skin temperature (P > 0.05), VO2 (P > 0.05), CO2 (P > 0.05), RER (P > 0.05), heart rate (P > 0.05) and cycling economy (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that utilizing heated trousers in place for an active warm-up could be considered as there were no significant advantages or disadvantages during submaximal cycling exercise.


active; cycling; endurance; passive; Submaximal; warm-up



File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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