Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Hospitality Management

First Committee Member

James Busser

Second Committee Member

Seyhmus Baloglu

Third Committee Member

Bo Bernhard

Fourth Committee Member

Erika Engstrom

Number of Pages



The continued underrepresentation of women in senior leadership positions has impaired the hospitality industry’s capacity to achieve the fifth UN Sustainable Development Goal of Gender Equality. Although the industry has initiated programs to establish gender parity, the innate gendering through traditional leadership prototypes and gender-role stratification requires investigation. Scholars have noted the limited focus on gender-aware issues in hospitality research. Further, as gender is a socialized construct, historical shifts in gender ideologies have enabled changes in gendering at the individual, interactional, and institutional dimensions of society. Grounded in gender as a social structure theory and role congruity theory, this dissertation examined gender ideologies of two generations (Gen Z and Gen X) and two genders (Female and Male). Equal groups of generation-gender, generation, and gender were contrasted to highlight substantial differences in gender ideologies. A hypothesized gender structure model supported the positive causal relationships between all structure dimensions and the changing leadership prototype, reflected through attitudes towards women as managers. This study was the first to empirically measure gender ideologies of the three dimensions of the gender structure framework. Results indicated that the gender ideologies of neutrality, authority bias, androgyny, and attitudes towards women as managers provided sufficient support that Gen Z Females have a role in moving the industry closer to gender equality. The study also presented pertinent extensions for theory and provided significant implications for managerial practice.


Gender inequality; Gender roles; Gender structure; Hospitality; Leadership prototype; Role congruity


Business Administration, Management, and Operations | Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies | Gender and Sexuality

File Format


File Size

6.2 MB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




IN COPYRIGHT. For more information about this rights statement, please visit