Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal


Health & Natural Sciences & Engineering > Natural Sciences > Biology


March 31, 2021


July 19, 2021


August 13, 2021


Yonosuke DeJesus (YD)1* and Guadalupe Moreno Ceballos (GMC)1, 2

Author Affiliations

1School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

2Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Corresponding Author

*Yonosuke DeJesus, aokiy1@unlv.nevada.edu

Author Contributions

YD: Conducted a literature search and review, fully drafted the manuscript, made significant revisions to the manuscript, generated figures, and approved the version to be published.

GMC: Conducted a literature search and review, made critical revisions to the manuscript, incorporated figures, implications of the results, and approved the version to be published.

Data Availability Statement

The authors of this article confirm that all included literature review information is fully available without restrictions.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that no conflicts of interest exist.

Ethical Considerations

Given this is a project-based literature review, and did not involve human or animal subjects, no IRB or IACUC approval was needed. No data presented in this paper has been derived from participants and all program elements are publicly shared.


No funding was used to conduct this research.


This research examines the timeline of the discovery and research of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG). By reviewing the literature on genetic and molecular mechanisms, we aim to emphasize a long-term treatment solution (iSTENT) to mitigate intraocular pressure (IOP) related to POAG etiology and disease progression. POAG is a multifactorial, autosomal dominant, adult-onset eye disease wherein the optic nerve cells become damaged due to a buildup of excess aqueous humor, resulting in increased IOP. Consequently, POAG leads to progressive loss of peripheral vision and is the leading cause of blindness in the US. Due to the multifactorial nature of glaucoma’s inheritance pattern and disease pathology, over 20 disease-associated loci have been implicated with POAG and its mechanisms remain relatively obscure. POAG remains a hotbed for multifactorial genetic research and the relationships between heterogeneity and environmental/genetic factors. To develop a more permanent solution for Glaucoma, we highlight a surgical insertion of a stent in the trabecular meshwork providing long-lasting dilation to the blocked drainage channels implicated with increased IOP and POAG progression. This procedure would allow for aqueous humor outflow from the eye and subsequent reduction of pressure-induced retinal ganglion cell damage. POAG’s progressive loss of vision due to polygenic inheritance and environmental factors is currently experienced by over 2.25 million Americans and will continue to grow as POAG-associated genes are maintained in subsequent generations. Therefore, a complete understanding of the history, etiology, and genetic mechanisms is critical for the development of effective and long-lasting treatment options.


genetics, multifactorial disease, MYOC (gene), intraocular pressure (IOP), blindness, iSent Medical Device

Submission Type

Primary review article